BGA PCB - Ball Grid Array PCB Manufacturing and Assembly Service

Ball Grid Array (BGA) PCB Board

What is and Why BGA PCB ?

OEM needs smaller and more diverse packaging options to meet product design challenges and maintain cost competitiveness in their respective markets. Ball grid array (BGA) packaging is becoming more and more popular to meet these design requirements. Besides, they are ideal solutions, because I/O connections are located inside the device, increasing the ratio of pins to the PCB area. Moreover, BGA with firm solder balls is stronger than QFP lead, so it is more robust.

BGA Package Types

There are six different BGA packages.

Moulded Array Process Ball Grid Array (MAPBGA)

It is a BGA package which provides low inductance and simple surface mounting.

Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA)

Again, this BGA package provides low inductance, simple surface mounting, high reliability and is cheap.

Thermally Enhanced Plastic Ball Grid Array (TEPBGA)

Just like its name sound, this BGA package can handle great levels of heat dissipation. Its substrate has solid copper planes.

Tape Ball Grid Array (TBGA)

You can use this BGA package as a solution for medium- to high- end applications.

Package on Package (PoP)

It will permit you to put a memory device on some base device.

Micro BGA

This BGA package is quite small when compared with standard BGA packages. Currently, you will see 0.65, 0.75 and 0.8 mm pitch size dominating in the industry.

PCB BGA Advantages

With PCB BGA, you will get the following advantages:

  1. BGA package eliminates the issue of developing small packages for ICs with lots of pins.
  2. Again, when compared with packages with legs, The BGA package has a lower thermal resistance when placed on the PCB.
  3. Do you know which property causes unwanted signals distortion in high-speed electronic circuits? The unwanted inductance in an electrical conductor is responsible for this phenomenon. However, BGAs have very little distance between the PCB and the package, which in turn leads to lower lead inductance. Thus, you will get top-class electrical performance with pinned devices.
  4. With BGAs, you can effectively utilize your Printed Circuit Board space.
  5. Another advantage that will come with BGA is the reduced thickness of the package.
  6. Last but not least, you will get enhanced re-workability because of bigger pad sizes.

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Ball-Grid Array (BGA) Packages Become PCB Design Mainstream

BGA PCB Design Rules

At present, the standard used to accommodate various advanced and multifaceted semiconductor devices (such as FPGA and microprocessor) is encapsulated by ball grid array (BGA) devices.

To keep up with the technological progress of chip manufacturers, BGA software packages for embedded design have made remarkable progress in the past few years.

This particular type of packaging can be decomposed into standard BGA and micro BGA.

With today’s electronics technology, the demand for I/O availability poses several challenges, even for experienced PCB designers, due to multiple exit routes.

Correct BGA partitioning first takes into account uniformity of the partitioning itself because precise BGA partitioning on a PCB is a crucial design aspect to minimize or eliminate crosstalk and noise, as well as manufacturing issues.

Memory signals need special consideration during BGA partitioning. They need to be away from oscillating signals and power supply switching. This is important because memory signals need to be clean. If traces carrying these signals are in the proximity of oscillating signals or switching power supply signals, they produce ripples in the memory signal traces, thereby reducing system speed. The system is operational but at less than optimal speed levels.

BGA PCB Design / Layout Guidelines

BGA Design Strategy 1: Define an appropriate exit path

The main challenge for PCB designers is to develop appropriate exit routes without causing manufacturing failures or other problems. Several PCBs need to ensure proper fan-out wiring strategies, including pad and pass size, I/O PIN, layers required for fan-out BGA, and line width spacing.

BGA Design Strategy 2: Identify the Layers Required

Another question is how many layers the PCB layout should have, which is by no means a simple decision. More layers mean higher overall cost of the product. On the other hand, sometimes, you need more layers to suppress the amount of noise PCB may encounter.

Once the alignment and space width of PCB design, the size of through holes, and the alignment in a single channel are determined, they can determine the number of layers they need. The best practice is to minimize the use of I/O pins to reduce the amount of layers. Usually, the first two outer sides of the device do not need through holes, while the inner part needs to arrange through holes below them.

Many designers call it dog bones. It is a short path of the BGA device pad, with a through-hole at the other end. The dog bone fan comes out and divides the equipment into four parts. This allows the remaining internal padding to be accessed by another layer and provides escape paths away from the edge of the device. This process will continue until all mats are fully developed.

Designing BGA is not easy. It requires many design rule checks (DRCs) to ensure that all traces are correctly spaced and carefully studied to determine how many layers are needed to make the design successful. As technology continues to increase, so does the challenge faced by every designer, introducing a model into a very narrow space.

BGA PCB Assembly

Previously, Engineers were not sure whether BGA PCB assembly would be able to achieve the reliability level of traditional SMT methods. However, at present, this is no longer a problem, because BGA has been widely used in Prototype PCB assembly and mass production PCB assembly.

You will need to use reflow methods to solder a BGA package because only the reflux method can ensure solder melting under the BGA module.

We have a wealth of experience handling all types of BGAs, including DSBGA and other Complex Components, from micro BGAs (2mmX3mm) to large size BGAs (45 mm); from ceramic BGAs to plastic BGAs. We are capable of placing a minimum of 0.4 mm pitch BGAs on your PCB.

Videos

How to fanout a BGA – Altium Designer 16.1

BGA Soldering

Ball Grid Array Rework: Package on Package Devices

How to inspect BGA Soldering performance on PCB

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