Ready to get started on your custom PCB order? We make the ordering process quick and convenient. Browse our FAQs on how to place an order with JHYPCB. Whether it’s your first time ordering PCBs or you have ordered before, our FAQs will guide you through completing your order. We want your custom PCB experience with JHYPCB to be simple and rewarding. Contact us if you have any other questions.
To obtain a PCB quote and place an order, please email your Gerber files, BOM, and any special requirements to our sales team at email@example.com. We will respond with a custom quote for your review.
We require Gerber files (274X or 274D with an aperture list), an Excellon drill file, and a drill tool list (may be included in the Excellon drill file) for optimal processing; however, we also accept ODB++, STEP and DXF formats – if you only have these other non-Gerber file types please email them to firstname.lastname@example.org or upload them here and our technical experts can work with them to create the Gerbers.
We need any CAD design files you may have, such as Gerber, ODB++, STEP or DXF formats. Also include a BOM if available. Our engineers will review your files to prepare an accurate quote.
Please specify the PCB requirements such as layers, material type, quantity needed, and any other special capabilities. Provide your target budget and expected production timeline if possible. Including these details allows us to cater the quote to your needs.
We respond to all quote requests within 24 hours with a detailed proposed price and production timeline for your review. Please let us know if you need an urgent quote.
PCB Fabrication from Prototype to Production
JHYPCB has over 15 years of experience delivering high-quality custom PCB fabrication, from low volume prototyping needs to scalable production runs. Browse the FAQs below to learn more about our PCB manufacturing capabilities, quality assurance guarantees, available materials and options, as well as other common questions on getting your boards fabricated with us. Our expertise provides the solution you need!
We can produce runs from 1 board for prototyping to over 10,000 boards for production capacity. Contact us for even higher volume manufacturing.
We meticulously inspect every run with automated optical inspection (AOI) and test all boards. Reviews take place at 3 stages – post lamination, after etching, and pre-shipment.
No-flow prepreg is the preferred bonding material for joining flex and rigid PCB sections. It helps prevent excess adhesive from seeping out. The most commonly used no-flow prepreg is standard FR-4, however polyimide also works very well for bonding flex portions while maintaining flexibility. We recommend using no-flow prepreg, either FR-4 or polyimide, when your PCB design requires joining rigid boards and flexible circuits. The properties prevent overflow without compromising bond strength or flexibility.
Via cracking while temperature cycling PCBs often results from a mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the copper and resin in the z-axis direction. To reduce this risk, choose materials that have similar CTE values to provide a closer match. This significantly decreases expansion and contraction differences during heating or cooling that otherwise lead to cracked vias over time. Our engineers can recommend PCB substrates, dielectric materials, and other construction alternatives to produce designs more resistant to thermal cycling stresses. Let us know details on the temperature range your boards will be exposed to, and any via span or location restrictions. With your application specifics, we can provide guidance on material type and stackup that helps minimize via cracking failures. Considering CTE compatibility early in the design phase is key.
Flexible substrates like polyimide Kapton can present challenges for drilling very small vias under 10 mil diameter. For reliable fabrication, we recommend keeping via holes and pads to 10 mils or above in the flexible sections. This ensures clean desmear and hole wall plating. In the rigid portions of rigid-flex designs, you can follow typical rigid PCB hole and pad size guidelines.
Additionally, our standard flexible PCB plating process is barrel-only plating along the drilled hole wall. There is no base copper plating on the pad. This allows the necessary flexibility while still enabling connections between layers through the plated barrel. Let our engineers know if you have density or layer-to-layer connection requirements that may benefit from thin pad plating in flex areas – we can evaluate specialty plating solutions. Keeping to larger via sizes and following our standard barrel-only plating process ensures reliable connections and maximum flexibility.
Flex material is hydroscopic (it absorbs moisture). Blistering comes from moisture trying to get out, and can cause thermal defects, like substrate blisters and barrel cracking during soldering. It also reduces dielectric breakdown voltage and expands the board. Pre-bake can stop blistering and eliminate moisture absorption.
PCB Assembly for Seamless Prototyping or Production
JHYPCB also provides professional full-turnkey PCB assembly services to complement our PCB fabrication capabilities. Whether you need low-volume prototype PCB assemblies built or a high-mix production ramped up, our SMT, DIP, and through-hole assembly services deliver quality, speed, and attention to detail. Browse the FAQs below to learn more about our assembly capacities, process, and component sourcing.
Our standard assembly time is 3 days for prototypes and 10-12 days for batch production orders, depending on complexity and component availability. We can fulfill rush builds in as fast as 24-48 hours.
We offer advanced assembly for components as small as 0201 chips, BGA, QFN, 0.3mm pitch QFP, flex/rigid PCBs, dense SMT, press-fits, and much more. Complex assembly welcome.
Yes, all assembled PCBs go through comprehensive testing to verify production quality and ensure boards are built for plug-and-play functionality.
Yes. Manufacturer part numbers are preferred; however, vendor part numbers can be used as well.
Yes, preferably one continuous strip of cut tape per part.
You can supply any of the components you wish. Provide the parts in tape/reel, tubes or trays.
If there is a part that you need us to supply, let us know at the time of quote. We will check our stock or purchase the part for you.
For customer-supplied component kits, we will return any unused surplus parts to you after completing assembly. This ensures you retain ownership of extra inventory for future builds or service needs. In the case where your supplied component kit experiences a shortage of one or multiple parts for completion of the PCB assembly, our team will promptly contact you to address the situation. We can discuss either procuring replacements on your behalf or other options so as not to delay production. Our policy is transparent communication and collaboration to swiftly resolve any component supply discrepancies. Please notify us as well if you anticipate any delays or changes regarding delivery of your component kits. We track inventory thoroughly throughout the assembly process to avoid or respond to missing item scenarios.
Turnkey finalization of contract electronics manufacturing demands extensive integration on the engineering, supply chain and tools fronts. Before assuming project responsibility, we require comprehensive BOM/CPL preliminaries plus all component acquisition details so nothing gets lost in translation once flights are switched to full autopilot.
Please submit 1) a meticulous bill of materials enumerating part numbers/values down to the capacitor markings or diode bandings. Include all mission-critical specifications affecting form, fit or function. Attach 2) corresponding reference designators clearly mapping components to their intended board positions, along with target solder joint classifications. Lastly, share ongoing accessibility to 3) the latest ODB++ and Gerber files as the substrate design iterates – unnecessary surprises late downstream can torpedo schedules and continuity.
We will mirror that level of diligence back by maintaining constant requirements sync-ups, only formally locking builds once confident every demanded performance index looks solidly achievable. Let’s align to cross this final turnkey threshold seamlessly!
Introduction to PCBs
New to PCB technology? Want to learn PCB design basics? Our general PCB FAQs provide background knowledge to help you understand printed circuit boards. Browse informative answers on:
- What is a PCB and how does it work?
- Differences between PCB prototyping vs production
- Types of PCB substrates and materials
- Explanation of layer stackup
- Common PCB components and features
- PCB design and assembly terminology
- Reasons for PCB testing and inspection standards
- Applications of PCBs in products
These beginner FAQs will get you started on key concepts, technologies, and processes related to printed circuit boards. Whether you are exploring PCBs for the first time or looking to expand your knowledge, use this as an educational foundation. Understanding PCB basics is the first step to efficiently procuring custom boards tailored for your product needs!
A PCB mechanically supports and electronically connects components using conductive tracks and pads etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Signals can pass between components to allow the functioning of an electronic device.
Prototyping involves making a small quantity of boards to test functionality before full production. It utilizes quicker fabrication methods but fewer optimization opportunities. Production maximizes automation, quality testing, and materials buying power for commercialization.
Common substrates are FR-4 fiberglass, which offers affordability for most applications, and high-performance substrates like Rogers and polyimides for boards requiring high frequencies, heat tolerance and flexibility.
Layer stackup means the sequence of conductive copper and dielectric insulating core, prepreg or build-up layers laminated together during fabrication to form the board construction. More layers enable increased component density.
Some key points about PCBA:
- Involves mounting and soldering components like integrated circuits (ICs), resistors, and capacitors onto the PCB using surface mount technology or through-hole insertion
- Performed by automated pick-and-place machines and robotic soldering for high-volume efficiency
- Results in a fully assembled PCB ready for functionality testing
- The essential step in electronics manufacturing before a PCB can operate for intended product use
- Allows the transformation of a bare printed circuit board into an electronic device by adding all necessary components
In summary, PCBA is the final assembly process that builds up a non-functional bare PCB into a ready-to-use populated printed circuit board that serves its electronic purpose in a product. It is an essential process linking PCB fabrication to electronic product creation.
There are several major types of printed circuit boards (PCBs):
- Single-sided PCBs: Have copper tracks on only one side of the board. Typically used in simple low-cost electronic devices.
- Double-sided PCBs: Have copper tracks on both sides of the board with plated through holes connecting the two layers. Allow for more component density.
- Multilayer PCBs: Constructed using multiple copper conductor layers laminated together, allowing complex interconnections. Most modern PCBs with high component density are multilayer, commonly 4-12 layers.
- Rigid PCBs: Use rigid insulating substrate base materials like FR4 or ceramics. The most common type of PCB in electronics equipment.
- Flexible PCBs: Use flexible insulating substrate materials like polyimide. Can bend, fold or twist. Used when needed to fit mechanically dynamic products.
- Rigid-flex PCBs: Consists of both rigid board sections and flexible circuits joined by rigid-flex transition points through special manufacturing processes.
These cover the major categories of PCB types by mechanical structure and layer stackup used in electronics device design and fabrication. There are also many varieties within each, tailored for specific applications.
PCBs undergo a series of complex fabrication processes to build up the board layers and circuitry. Rather than summarize the details here, I would recommend interested customers directly reference our printed circuit board manufacturing process guide. This guide comprehensively covers every step of PCB fabrication in an easy-to-understand fashion. It will walk you through the sequence of core processes like laminating layers, drilling holes, etching copper, component finish plating, profiling routes, inspecting boards, and preparing them for shipment. With informative diagrams accompanying each process explanation, you will gain valuable insight into how raw materials get transformed into finished boards. Please check our process guide to understand the complete PCB manufacturing sequence better. Of course, feel free to ask our engineering team if you have any additional questions!
The core difference between single-sided, double-sided, and multilayer printed circuit boards lies in the number of conductive copper layers they contain.
A single-sided PCB has all circuitry patterned on only one external layer. A double-sided PCB increases capacity by adding circuit traces on a second layer, with plated through-holes interconnecting both sides. This allows higher component densities.
In contrast, multilayer PCBs consist of four or more copper conductor layers laminated together, separated by dielectric substrates. Having circuitry embedded internally enables complex, high-density interconnections not feasible with external layers alone. Multilayer PCB construction is essential for sophisticated electronics packing requirements today. The more layers in a stackup, the greater routing flexibility for maximum miniaturization and functionality per board area. High-speed applications also leverage careful stackup planning for controlled impedance signal integrity.
Copper traces fulfill the crucial role of transmitting signals and power between connected components on a printed circuit board. These bare copper lines function analogously to veins and arteries in the human body, enabling vital flow to all organs needing electrical access. Without this conductive network routing signals across the PCB substrate, components would remain unpowered islands unable to interact digitally.
Much thought in the board layout stage focuses on routing schemes to handle necessary traces. Constraints include track thickness, usable layers, component pin assignments, interference, timing, and thermal considerations. Just as blood vessels branching tighter increases pulse transmission challenges, electrical congestion is a key bottleneck. Careful floorplanning facilitates routing success. The copper serves as lifeblood empowering the PCB’s role, making traces the key enlisted soldiers marching signals across a populated board.
The solder mask is an integral insulating film adhered across the full PCB during fabrication, functioning as the printed circuit board’s first line of defense against environmental threats. This plastic protective coating masks over traces and pads, preventing contamination from oxidizing, shorting, or corroding the vital copper circuitry beneath while also electrically isolating adjacent nodes.
By selectively tenting off areas solder should not migrate to post-assembly, solder mask forestalls bridges that destroy routing intentionality. It also serves a structural role – the masking layer helps mechanically anchor elevated traces against shearing forces. Without these resilient barriers the PCB would operate at the mercy of dust, moisture, shorts and abrasion. Much like sunscreen or a rain poncho shielding skin, solder mask durably preserves PCB signal fidelity when the going gets tough, prolonging functionality lifespans.
A plated through hole (PTH) is a conductive hole connecting two or more copper layers in a printed circuit board. PTHs allow tracks on different layers to interconnect by forming a continuous metallic barrel spanning the dielectric layers in between. This enables signals to change routing layers internally rather than only via external surface paths.
Fabricating a PTH involves first drilling a hole through the entire PCB stackup at desired locations. These holes then undergo electroless and electrolytic copper plating until the hole walls get fully coated with a thin copper layer. This creates a conductive barrel bridging across insulating dielectric layers to link copper layers together through vertical interconnect access (via). PTHs electrically behave like vias internally wiring layers.
Properly plated holes ensure reliable connectivity cross-sectionally between layers, increasing routing flexibility which board layout Leverages. Dense multilayer PCBs with high interlayer connectivity dependence heavily rely on quality PTH plating. It serves as the stitching electrically fastening layered fabrics together into integrated circuitry.
Impedance control entails strategically tuning dielectric layer thicknesses and trace dimensions to achieve uniform electric signal propagation characteristics along a trace’s full length. Matching route impedance to terminal source/load endpoints minimizes disruptive electrical reflections causing timing or bit errors degrading performance.
Without controlled impedance, trace impedance mismatches generate problematic reflecting signal components much like untamed reverberations distorting sound quality within an auditorium. Controlled impedance traces instead enable precision sequential switching vital for transmitting clock or sensitive data. This facilitates reliably fast communication between PCB components critical to digital system operation up to GHz frequencies.
Carefully correlating board materials, copper shapes, ground planes and laminate properties is imperative to limit impedance deviations below 10%. Missteps severely penalize signal integrity and electromagnetic compatibility. Impedance control is thus indispensable for optimizing speed, throughput and noise in high frequency PCBs.
Leaded solder relies on lead’s malleability and wetting properties to produce superior joints, while lead-free solder substitutes different metals to avoid hazardous health and environmental impacts. Traditional tin-lead solder provides unrivaled workability, tombstoning resistance and low-cost – however, legislated change drove electronics toward unleaded composites.
As consumers demanded environmental responsibility, manufacturers migrated to lead-free solders utilizing alloy alternatives like tin-silver-copper (SAC) and tin-copper-nickel (SN100C). These doublement require tighter process controls, generating more dross and costing over 50% more versus leaded equivalents. Nonetheless, eliminating lead resolves risks of accumulating the neurotoxic heavy metal in landfills and water supplies. Any modest reliability challenges imposed by lead-free solder pale next to reducing birth defects and neurological disorders plaguing society. Avoiding that biological burden justifies surmounting any production or performance obstacles the electronics industry has endured in this vital transition.
Surface mount technology (SMT) modernized PCB assembly by soldering component undersides directly onto copper pads, boosting automation and miniaturization versus intrusive through-hole insertion methods. With SMT, densely packed integrated circuits and resistors flank boards with all terminations occupying only the outer surfaces, in contrast to thicker through-hole components spanning vertically like stalagmites.
While advancements in precision surface mounting equipment have reflowed electronics manufacturing into a largely SMT realm over the past decades due to efficiency gains, some applications still leverage through-hole technology’s (THT) inherent anchoring, economy and thermal/mechanical resilience advantages. Strategic utilization of supplemental THT components prevents undue fragility or overconstraint of solder joints across thermal gradients and vibration.
Ultimately through-hole and surface mount approaches remain complementary counterparts together strengthening modern electronics assembly according to application demands, though SMT predominates as the driving engine of miniaturization advancement.
Rigid PCBs employ hardened substrates far exceeding plastics in resilience to abrasion, temperature extremes and cutting forces – but enhanced durability sacrifices adaptability. Flexible PCBs instead prioritize malleability using thin polymer films enabling tight-radius bends and folds without fracture risk.
Whereas rigid boards structurally behave akin to ceramic plates or timber beams, robust yet cumbersome for winding applications, flexible circuits resemble fabric tapestries extravagantly draping over contours. Polyimide laminates bonded with heat-resistant adhesives furnish durability surpassing kapton and paper while twisting freely as tracing paper. Such tensile dexterity allows fitting lightweight, thin form factors resembling intricate origami into densely packed products impenetrable to rigid slices.
With each class underlining electrical connection or physical configurability priorities according to context, the rigid versus flexible PCB dichotomy ultimately presents symbiotic, complementary approaches collectively expanding design possibilities beyond mutually exclusive capabilities.often used in applications where space is limited or where the board needs to conform to a specific shape.
Custom PCB pricing fluctuates based on size, layer count, complexity, quality, and order volume – a major project can readily eclipse $100,000 while prototyping barebones boards may ring up for mere dollars. Quantifying cost before assessing product requirements risks misleading rather than informing.
Our engineers have spearheaded thousands of PCB projects across the application spectrum. Descriptively detail your board’s dimensional constraints, circuit intricacy, substrate selections and assembly precisions along projected order numbers. With holistic insight into your unique vision, we can apply experience directing similarly ambitious endeavors to transparency around prospective investments required. There is no universal price tag for custom PCB development – let our partnership pave the optimal path balancing performance ambitions with budget realities. The only constant is our commitment to steering customers through the estimate process informed rather than surprised.
A PCB’s total cost amalgamates materials, labor, quality assurance, profit margins, and value-added services spanning initial computer aided design through final delivery. Quantifying expense contributions from each phase helps budget effectively.
Front-end engineering sculpting layouts and circuit simulations constitutes significant investment before manufacturing engagement. Fabrication pricing itself compounds raw board sizes and stackups with special processing like controlled impedances, tolerances, or finishes. Supplementary testing and programming configurations also accumulate costs.
Of course, order volume impacts pricing curves as high initial tooling setups amortize over production quantity, offset by bulk material deals. Each incremental customization adds up – we strive to balance optimization with necessity to curate cost-effective PCB orders guaranteeing required performance for targeted applications. Identifying cornerstone driving factors early is key to accurate projections steering decisions, financial modeling, and peace of mind.
Here are some key advantages of using a printed circuit board (PCB):
- Reliability and Durability – PCBs allow for very reliable and durable electronic circuits. The copper tracks are securely affixed to the substrate and components are soldered with consistent connections. This results in products that can function for years without failure.
- Miniaturization – PCBs enable miniaturization of electronics by allowing optimized component packing densities and multilayer boards for complex circuit routing. This allows advanced capabilities to fit into compact products.
- Ease of Assembly – Because PCBs have pre-made wiring, product assembly only involves mounting components onto the board rather than manually connecting wires. Automated assembly is also easier.
- Cost Effectiveness – For mass production, PCB manufacturing has very low per-unit costs compared to point-to-point hand-wired connections. Automated assembly also lowers total product costs.
- Thermal Management – Ground planes in the copper layers along with thermal pads under devices help conduct heat efficiently to prevent failures. This allows packing heat-producing components closely.
In summary, PCBs bring reliability, miniaturization, ease of manufacturing, cost savings and thermal advantages to electronic products, making them integral to modern electronics across all industries.
Couldn't Find an Answer? Contact Us!
At JHYPCB, we aim to make the PCB ordering process as clear and efficient as possible by addressing common customer questions in our FAQ section. However, we know unique situations arise or you may need additional details not covered here. Please contact our knowledgeable sales staff if you have any other questions not answered on this page.
Our team is ready to guide you through any aspect of ordering PCB prototypes or manufacturing PCBs in production volumes with us. We are committed to providing excellent customer support from start to finish. Please email us at email@example.com or call our office number below. Let us know how we can earn your business – we appreciate any opportunity to put our expertise to work for you!